All you need to know about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Informative     Kidney care    

Published on 29 Jul, 2022

All you need to know about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Many People Are Living With CKD,
But They Do Not Know.

Worldwide, there are approximately 700 million people with CKD. It is estimated that more than 42 million people are having CKD in South-East Asia, of which 1.67 million are from Singapore. Unfortunately, one study shows that 7 out of 10 Singaporeans are unaware that they are living with CKD. One of the most likely reason is that early stages of CKD are usually asymptomatic and affected individuals are not aware of anything. They will not feel the damage before any kidney function is lost as it happens slowly and in stages. Therefore, early detection of kidney disease through health screening is important to ensure that right treatment can be introduced at the right time to slow down the progression of CKD.




CKD affects > 
forty-two million people in Southeast Asia

Possible under-recognition of CKD by
both physicians and patients

flag 70 %

Early Stages of CKD are
Usually Asymptomatic

early stage

Early Stage

  • No obvious symptoms ±
    bubbles / blood in urine
late stage

Late Stage

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling

When do I need to screen for
chronic kidney disease?

You should screen for kidney disease if you have the risk factors below:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • 50 years and above and is smoker
  • Family history of kidney disease
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • BMI > 27 kg/m²

What are the Symptoms of CKD

Many people do not have any symptoms until advanced stage of kidney disease. However, you may
notice that you:

  • Have frothy urine
  • Have puffiness around your eyes, especially in the morning
  • Have swollen feet and ankles
  • Need to urinate more often, especially at night
  • Feel more tired and have less energy
  • Have trouble concentrating
  • Have a poor appetite or the sensation of wanting to vomit
  • Have trouble sleeping
  • Have muscle cramping at night
  • Have dry or itchy skin

How do I know I have early stage of CKD?

Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

Patients with early-stage CKD can be screened by using readily available, simple, and inexpensive tests


Kidney function impairment

Decreased GFR 

<60 mL/min/1.73 m² (stages 3a–5)


Kidney damage


UACR ≥30 mg/g

Diagnosis of CKD requires two abnormal measurements > 3 months apart


How to Diagnose CKD?

CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for > 3 months, with implications for health. CKD is classified based on cause, GFR category, and albuminuria category. Two of the most important markers of CKD are albuminuria, with UACR ≥30 mg/g, and GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m².


Image adapted from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD Work Group. Kidney Int 2013;3(Suppl. 1):1–150.


1. Liyanage T, et al. BMJ Global Health 2022;7:e007525. doi:10.1136/
2. QL Lew et al. Nephron 2018;138:202-213.
3. Saminathan TA et al. BMC Nephrology (2020) 21:344.
4. The Singapore Family Physician 2021; 47 (8): 18.
5. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes CKD Work Group.
Kidney Int 2013;3(Suppl. 1):1–150.

Featured articles

Finding the most suitable option for Kidney Replacement Therapy

Read More

Diet, Exercise and Chronic Kidney Disease

Read More

All you need to know about Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Read More

Chat Now